The best way to preventis through vaccination.
Vaccines prepare the immune system by exposing the body to a germ so that it is better able to fight an infection when it occurs. Vaccines contain either parts of a germ, live but weakened germs, or inactivated (dead) germs.
The vaccines available protect against the three major causes of, , pneumococcal meningitisand Haemophilus Influenzae Type b.
Meningococcal vaccines protect against
vaccines are available to protect older children, adolescents and adults, outbreaks or situations of increased risk (military recruits, university students, travelers). May be used in conjunction with antibiotics. These include:
- Combined groups A and C vaccine
- Combined groups A-C-Y-W135 vaccine
- Meningococcal BV
Conjugated vaccines exist for routine immunisation of infants, children and adolescents. These include:
- Conjugate group C vaccine
- Conjugate groups A-C-Y-W135 vaccine
Pneumococcal vaccines protect against pneumococcal meningitis
A number ofvaccines exist for routine immunisation of people over 65 years of age and children over 5 years of age with underlying medical conditions. These include:
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b () vaccines
vaccines protect against Haemophilus Influenzae Type b
The firstvaccine was a -only vaccine. Although it provided protection in children between 2 and 5 years of age, it was not effective in infants less than 18 months old.
Conjugatedvaccines are highly effective in preventing disease and are recommended for routine use in all infants.
Meningitis-preventing vaccines have proven to be extremely safe. Because they are composed of purifiedand protein, there is no possibility of contracting meningitis or any other infection from these vaccines.
Other things to remember include:
- Smoking can increase the risk of being a carrier of meningitis bacteria.
- Seasonal factors can also affect the incidence of . In temperate regions, the disease in the winter and early spring. In Sub-Saharan Africa, outbreaks occur in the dry season.
- Cases are more frequent in developing countries due to poverty, overcrowding and lack of access to vaccines.
- Anyone who has been in close contact with a meningitis patient within seven days before the onset of the disease is at increased risk of contracting it themselves. With meningococcal and infections, preventative antibiotics are usually offered to close contacts. These reduce, but cannot eliminate, the risk of family members or other close contacts becoming ill.
Safe, effective vaccines are now available for many common types of meningitis and new vaccines are in development all the time.
There are no vaccines available for the common kinds of, but washing hands thoroughly and keeping surfaces clean can help prevent the disease. People should also avoid sharing anything that has been in their mouth.
Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and chickenpox) vaccine protect children against meningitis and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by these viruses.
Vaccines are not available for. The risk of contracting can be minimised by avoiding exposure to environments likely to contain fungal elements (for example, bird droppings and dust).